Bill Evans

William John Evans, known as Bill Evans (August 16, 1929 – September 15, 1980) was an American jazz pianist. His use of impressionist harmony, inventive interpretation of traditional jazz repertoire, and trademark rhythmically independent, “singing” melodic lines influenced a generation of pianists including: Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, John Taylor, Steve Kuhn, Don Friedman, Denny Zeitlin, Bobo Stenson, Michel Petrucciani and Keith Jarrett, as well as guitarists Lenny Breau, Ralph Towner, John McLaughlin, and Pat Metheny. The music of Bill Evans continues to inspire younger pianists like Marcin Wasilewski, Fred Hersch, Bill Charlap, Lyle Mays, Eliane Elias[1] and arguably Brad Mehldau,[2] early in his career. Evans is an inductee of the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame.[3]

Bill Evans was born in Plainfield, New Jersey, to a mother of Rusyn ancestry and a father of Welsh descent.[4] He received his first musical training at his mother’s church. Evans’s mother was an amateur pianist with an interest in modern classical composers, and Evans began classical piano lessons at age six. He also became a proficient flautist by age 13 and could play the violin.

At age 12, Evans filled in for his older brother Harry in Buddy Valentino’s band.[5] He had already been playing dance music (and jazz) at home for some time (“How My Heart Sings”, Peter Pettinger, 1999). In the late 1940s, he played boogie woogie in various New York City clubs. He attended Southeastern Louisiana University on a music scholarship and in 1950 performed Beethoven‘s Third Piano Concerto on his senior recital there, graduating with a degree in piano performance and teaching. He was also among the founding members of SLU’s Delta Omega Chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, and played quarterback for the school’s football team, helping them win the 1949 championship (Pettinger, 1999).

Evans’s first professional job was with sax player Herbie Fields’s band, based in Chicago. During the summer of 1950, the band did a three-month tour backing Billie Holiday, including East Coast appearances at Harlem’s Apollo Theater and shows in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and at Washington D.C.’s Howard Theater. In addition to Fields and Evans, the band included trumpeter Jimmy Nottingham, trombonist Frank Rossolino and bassist Jim Aton. Upon its return to Chicago, Evans and Aton worked as a duo in Chicago clubs, often backing singer Lurline Hunter. Shortly thereafter, Evans received his draft notice and entered the U.S. Army.

1965 “Beautiful Love” in Berlin

After his army service, Evans returned to New York and worked at nightclubs with jazz clarinetist Tony Scott and other leading players. Later, he took postgraduate studies in composition at the Mannes College of Music, where he also mentored younger music students.

Working in New York in the 1950s, Evans gained recognition as a sideman in traditional and so-called Third Stream jazz groups. During this period he had the opportunity to record in many different contexts with some of the best jazz musicians of the time. Seminal recordings made with composer/theoretician George Russell, including “Concerto for Billy the Kid” and “All About Rosie”, are notable for Evans’s solo work. Evans also appeared on notable albums by Charles Mingus, Oliver Nelson, Tony Scott, and Art Farmer. In 1956, he made his debut album, New Jazz Conceptions, featuring the original version of “Waltz for Debby“, for Riverside Records. Producer Orrin Keepnews was convinced to record the reluctant Evans by a demo tape guitarist Mundell Lowe played to him over the phone.

“Stella By Starlight” A genius at work…

Piano : Bill Evans.
Double Bass : Eddie Gomez.
Drums : Alex Riel.

Oslo on October 28, 1966.

In 1958, Evans was hired by Miles Davis, becoming the only white member of Davis’s famed sextet. Though his time with the band was brief (no more than eight months), it was one of the most fruitful collaborations in the history of jazz, as Evans’s introspective scalar approach to improvisation deeply influenced Davis’s style. At the time, Evans was playing block chords, and Davis wrote in his autobiography, “Bill had this quiet fire that I loved on piano. The way he approached it, the sound he got, was like crystal notes or sparkling water cascading down from some clear waterfall.” Additionally, Davis said, “I’ve sure learned a lot from Bill Evans. He plays the piano the way it should be played.”

“Autumn Leaves”

Evans’s desire to pursue his own projects as a leader (and increasing problems with drug use) led him to leave the Davis sextet in late 1958. Shortly after, he recorded Everybody Digs Bill Evans, documenting the wholly original meditative sound he was exploring at the time. But Evans came back to the sextet at Davis’s request to record the jazz classic Kind of Blue in early 1959. Evans’s contribution to the album was overlooked for years; in addition to cowriting the song “Blue in Green[6], he had also already developed the ostinato figure from the track “Flamenco Sketches” on the 1958 solo recording “Peace Piece” from his album Everybody Digs Bill Evans. Evans also penned the heralded liner notes for Kind of Blue comparing jazz improvisation to Japanese visual art.[7] By the fall of 1959, he had started his own trio.

“The Days Of Wine And Roses”

At the turn of the decade, Evans led a trio with bassist Scott LaFaro and drummer Paul Motian. This group was to become one of the most acclaimed piano trios—and jazz bands in general—of all time. With this group, Evans’s focus settled on traditional jazz standards and original compositions, with an added emphasis on interplay among the band members that often bordered on collective improvisation, blurring the line between soloist and accompanist. The collaboration between Evans and the young LaFaro was particularly fruitful, as the two achieved a remarkable level of musical empathy. The trio recorded four albums: Portrait in Jazz (1959); and Explorations, Sunday at the Village Vanguard, and Waltz for Debby, all recorded in 1961. The last two albums are live recordings from the same recording date, and are routinely named among the greatest jazz recordings of all time. In 2005, the full sets were collected on the three-CD set The Complete Village Vanguard Recordings, 1961. There is also a lesser-known recording of this trio, Live at Birdland, taken from radio broadcasts in early 1960, though the sound quality is poor.

“Someday My Prince Will Come”

In addition to introducing a new freedom of interplay within the piano trio, Evans began (in performances such as “My Foolish Heart” from the Vanguard sessions) to explore extremely slow ballad tempos and quiet volume levels, which had been virtually unknown in jazz. His chordal voicings became more impressionistic, reminiscent of classical composers such as Debussy, Ravel, Scriabin, and Satie, and he moved away from the thick block chords he had often used with Davis. His sparse left-hand voicings supported his lyrical right-hand lines, reflecting the influence of jazz pianist Bud Powell.

Like Davis, Evans was a pioneer of modal jazz, favoring harmonies that helped avoid some of the idioms of bebop and other earlier jazz. In tunes like Time Remembered, the chord changes more or less absorbed the derivative styles of bebop and instead relied on unexpected shifts in color. It was still possible (and desirable) to make these changes swing, and a certain spontaneity appeared in expert solos that were played over the new sound. Most composers refer to the style of Time Remembered as “plateau modal,” because of its frequent juxtaposition of harmony.

LaFaro’s death at age 25 in a car accident, ten days after the Vanguard performances, devastated Evans. He did not record or perform in public again for several months. His first recording after LaFaro’s death was the duet album Undercurrent, with guitarist Jim Hall, released on United Artist Jazz records in 1963. Recorded in two sessions on April 24 and May 14, 1962, it is now widely regarded as a classic jazz piano-guitar duet recording. The album is also notable for its striking cover image, “Weeki Wachee Spring, Florida” by photographer Toni Frissell. The original LP and the first CD reissue featured a cropped, blue-tinted version, overlaid with the title and the Blue Note logo; but for the most recent (24-bit remastered) CD reissue, the image has been restored to its original black-and-white coloration and size, without lettering.

Stan Getz with Bill Evans performing, “But Beauftiful”

When he re-formed his trio in 1962, Evans replaced LaFaro with bassist Chuck Israels, initially keeping Motian on the drums. Two albums, Moonbeams and How My Heart Sings!, resulted. In 1963, after having switched from Riverside to the much more widely distributed Verve, he recorded Conversations With Myself, an innovative album on which he employed overdubbing, layering up to three individual tracks of piano for each song. The album won him his first Grammy award, for Best Instrumental Jazz Performance — Soloist or Small Group.

Though his time with Verve was prolific in terms of recording, his artistic output was uneven. Despite Israels’s fast development and the creativity of new drummer Grady Tate, they were ill-represented by the rather perfunctory album Bill Evans Trio with Symphony Orchestra, with the piece Pavane by Gabriel Fauré remarkably reinvented with improvisations by Evans. Some unique contexts were attempted, such as a big-band live album at Town Hall, recorded but never issued due to Evans’s dissatisfaction with it (although the jazz trio portion of the Pavane concert was made into its own somewhat successful release), and an album with a symphony orchestra, not warmly received by critics.

During this time, Helen Keane, Evans’s manager, began having an important influence. One of the first women in her field, she significantly helped to maintain the progress (or prevent the deterioration) of Evans’s career in spite of his self-destructive lifestyle.

In 1966, Evans discovered the remarkable young Puerto Rican bass player Eddie Gomez. In what turned out to be an eleven-year stay, the sensitive and creative Gomez sparked new developments in both Evans’s playing and his trio conception. One of the most significant releases during this period is Bill Evans at the Montreux Jazz Festival, from 1968. Although it was the only album Evans made with drummer Jack DeJohnette, it has remained a critical and fan favorite, due to the trio’s remarkable energy and interplay.

Getz and Evans performing Cole Porter’s, “Night and Day”

Other highlights from this period include “Solo—In Memory of His Father” from Bill Evans at Town Hall (1966), which introduced the famous theme “Turn Out the Stars,” a second successful pairing with guitarist Jim Hall; Intermodulation (1966); and the subdued, crystalline solo album Alone (1968), featuring a 14-minute-plus version of “Never Let Me Go.”

In 1968, Marty Morell joined the trio on drums and remained until 1975, when he retired to family life. This was Evans’s stablest, longest-lasting group. Evans had kicked his heroin habit and was entering a period of personal stability as well. The group made several albums, including From Left to Right (1970), which features Evans’s first use of electric piano; The Bill Evans Album (1971), which won two Grammies; The Tokyo Concert (1973); Since We Met (1974); and But Beautiful (1974), featuring the trio plus legendary tenor saxophonist Stan Getz in live performances from Holland and Belgium, released posthumously in 1996. Morell was an energetic, straight-ahead drummer, unlike many of the trio’s former percussionists, and many critics feel that this was a period of little growth for Evans. After Morell left, Evans and Gomez recorded two duo albums, Intuition and Montreux III.

Johnny Mercer’s, “Emily”

In 1974, Bill Evans recorded a multimovement jazz concerto specifically written for him by Claus Ogerman entitled Symbiosis, originally released on the MPS Records label. The 1970s also saw Evans collaborate with the singer Tony Bennett on 1975’s The Tony Bennett/Bill Evans Album and 1977’s Together Again.

On September 13, 1975, Evans’s son, Evan, was born. Evan Evans did not often see his always-touring father. A child prodigy, he embarked on a career in film scoring, ambitiously attending college courses in 20th-century composition, instrumentation, and electronic composition at the age of ten. He also studied with many of his father’s contemporaries, including Lalo Schifrin and harmony specialist Bernard Maury.

Bill Evans Trio – Live ’66 In Oslo – “If You Could See Me Now”

In 1976, Marty Morell was replaced on drums by Eliot Zigmund. Several interesting collaborations followed, and it was not until 1977 that the trio was able to record an album together. Both I Will Say Goodbye (Evans’s last album for Fantasy Records) and You Must Believe in Spring (for Warner Bros., released posthumously) highlighted changes that would become significant in the last stage of Evans’s career. A greater emphasis was placed on group improvisation and interaction, Evans was reaching new expressive heights in his soloing, and new experiments with harmony and keys were attempted.

Gomez and Zigmund left Evans in 1978. Evans then asked Philly Joe Jones, the drummer Evans considered his “all-time favorite drummer” and with whom he had recorded his second album in 1957, to fill in. Several bassists were tried, with the remarkable Michael Moore staying the longest. Evans finally settled on Marc Johnson on bass and Joe LaBarbera on drums. This trio was Evans’s last. Although they released only one record before Evans’s death in 1980 (The Paris Concert, Edition One and Edition Two, 1979), they rivaled (and arguably exceeded) the first trio in their powerful group interactions. Evans stated that this was possibly his best trio, a claim supported by the many recordings that have since surfaced, each documenting the remarkable musical journey of his final year. The Debussylike impressionism of the first trio had given way to a dark and urgent yet undeniably compelling, deeply moving (if not mesmerizing) romantic expressionism.

Evans’s Rusyn ancestry is sometimes confused with a “Russian” ethnic background. His music reflects Russian titans like the Rachmaninoffesque pianism of his brooding constructions and the Shostakovich-like “Danse Macabre” modal explorations of “Nardis”, the piece he reworked each time it served as the finale of his performances. But the “anticipatory meter” that Evans deliberately perfected with his last trio reflects late Ravel, especially the controversial second half of the French composer’s dark and turbulent La Valse. The recording documenting Evans’s playing during the week preceding his death is the valedictory “The Last Waltz.” Many albums and compilations have been released in recent years, including three multidisc boxed sets: Turn Out the Stars (Warner Bros.), The Last Waltz, and Consecration. The Warner Bros. set is a selection of material from Evans’s final residency at New York’s Village Vanguard club, nearly two decades after his classic performances there with the La Faro/Motian trio; the other two are drawn from his performances at San Francisco’s Keystone Korner the week before his death. A particularly revealing comparison of early and late Evans (1966, 1980) is a 2007 DVD of two previously unreleased telecasts, The Oslo Concerts. Evans’s drug addiction most likely began during his stint with Miles Davis in the late 1950s. A heroin addict for much of his career, his health was generally poor, and his financial situation worse, for most of the 1960s. By the end of that decade, he appeared to have succeeded in overcoming heroin, but during the 1970s, cocaine use became a serious and eventually fatal problem for Evans. His body finally gave out in September 1980, when—ravaged by psychoactive drugs, a perforated liver, and a lifelong battle with hepatitis—he died in New York City of a bleeding ulcer, cirrhosis of the liver, and bronchial pneumonia. Evans’s friend Gene Lees bleakly summarized Evans’s struggle with drugs to Peter Pettinger as “the longest suicide in history” (How My Heart Sings, p. 3). At the time of his death, Evans was a resident of Fort Lee, New Jersey.[4] Bill Evans is buried at Roselawn Memorial Park and Mausoleum, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana (Section #161, Plot K), next to his brother Harry Evans, who died the previous year. The inscription reads, “William John Evans; August 16, 1929; September 15, 1980”.

Marian McPartland’s Piano Jazz Interview “The Touch of Your Lips”  -(Bill-Marian) Fascinating interview and playing.

Sources: Wikipedia, YouTube, billevans.com, imdb.com, nndb.com

Quick Bio Facts From NNDB.com

Bill Evans – AKA William John Evans

Born: 16-Aug1929
Birthplace: Plainfield, NJ
Died: 15-Sep1980
Location of death: New York City [1]
Cause of death: Cirrhosis of the Liver

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Jazz Musician

Nationality: United States
Executive summary: Jazz pianist

Military service: US Army (1951-54)


[1] Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City.

Brother: Harry Evans (d. 1979)
Wife: Ellaine (d. 1970 suicide, threw herself onto subway tracks)
Wife: Nenette (until his death, one son)
Son: Evan

University: BA, Southeastern Louisiana University (1950)
University: Mannes College of Music, New York City

Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame 1982
Grammy 1994 (Lifetime Achievement Award)
Welsh Ancestry Paternal
Russian Ancestry Maternal
Risk Factors: Heroin, Cocaine, Hepatitis

RECORDINGS

Year Title Musicians Label
1956 New Jazz Conceptions Trio with Teddy Kotick & Paul Motian Riverside
1958 Everybody Digs Bill Evans Trio with Philly Joe Jones & Sam Jones Riverside
1959 On Green Dolphin Street not issued until the 1970s Riverside
1959 The Ivory Hunters Quartet with pianist Bob Brookmeyer United Artists
1959 Portrait in Jazz Trio with Scott LaFaro & Paul Motian Riverside
1961 Know What I Mean? Quartet with saxophonist Cannonball Adderley Riverside
1961 Explorations Trio with LaFaro & Motian Riverside
1961 Sunday at the Village Vanguard Live – Trio with LaFaro & Motian Riverside
1961 Waltz for Debby Live – Trio with LaFaro & Motian Riverside
1962 Nirvana Quartet with flautist Herbie Mann Atlantic
1962 Undercurrent Duo with guitarist Jim Hall United Artists
1962 Moon Beams Trio with Chuck Israels & Paul Motian Riverside
1962 How My Heart Sings! Trio with Israels & Motian Riverside
1962 Interplay Quintet with Freddie Hubbard & Jim Hall Riverside
1962 Empathy Trio with drummer Shelley Manne & Monty Budwig Verve
1962 Loose Blues Quintet with Zoot Sims & Jim Hall Milestone
1963 The Solo Sessions, Vol. 1 Solo Milestone
1963 The Solo Sessions, Vol. 2 Solo Milestone
1963 The Gary McFarland Orchestra Orchestra with Special Guest Soloist: Bill Evans Verve
1963 Conversations With Myself Solo Best Jazz Instrumental Album, Individual or Group Verve
1963 Plays the Theme from The V.I.P.s and Other Great Songs with orchestra conducted by Claus Ogerman MGM
1963 Time Remembered Live – Trio with Israels & Larry Bunker Milestone
1963 At Shelly’s Manne-Hole Live – Trio with Israels & Bunker Riverside
1964 Trio ’64 Trio with Gary Peacock & Paul Motian Verve
1964 Stan Getz & Bill Evans Quartet with saxophonist Stan Getz Verve
1964 Trio Live Live – Trio with Chuck Israels & Larry Bunker Verve
1964 Waltz for Debby Trio with singer Monica Zetterlund Philips
1965 Trio ’65 Trio with Chuck Israels & Larry Bunker Verve
1965 Bill Evans Trio with Symphony Orchestra with orchestra conducted by Claus Ogerman Verve
1966 Bill Evans at Town Hall Live- Trio with Chuck Israels and Arnold Wise Verve
1966 Intermodulation with guitarist Jim Hall Verve
1966 A Simple Matter of Conviction Trio with Eddie Gomez & Shelly Manne Verve
1967 Further Conversations with Myself Verve
1967 California Here I Come Live- Trio with Philly Joe Jones & Eddie Gomez Verve
1968 Bill Evans at the Montreux Jazz Festival Live, Won Grammy award Verve
1968 Bill Evans Alone Verve
1969 What’s New Verve
1969 Jazzhouse Live – Trio with Eddie Gomez & Marty Morell Milestone
1969 You’re Gonna Hear From Me Live – Trio with Eddie Gomez & Marty Morell Milestone
1970 From Left to Right MGM
1969 Quiet Now Charly
1970 Montreux II CTI
1971 Bill Evans, Piano Player Columbia
1971 The Bill Evans Album Grammy winner Columbia
1972 Living Time with George Russell Orchestra Columbia
1973 The Tokyo Concert Live – Trio with Eddie Gomez & Marty Morell Fantasy
1973-5 Eloquence Live Fantasy
1973 Half Moon Bay Live – Trio with Gomez & Morell Milestone
1974 Since We Met Live – Trio with Gomez & Morell Fantasy
1974 Re: Person I Knew Live – Trio with Gomez & Morell Fantasy
1974 Symbiosis with orchestra conducted by Claus Ogerman MPS
1974 But Beautiful Live with saxophonist Stan Getz Milestone
1974 Blue in Green: The Concert in Canada Live – Trio with Gomez & Morell Milestone
1974 Intuition Fantasy
1975 The Tony Bennett/Bill Evans Album with Tony Bennett Fantasy
1975 Montreux III Live, Bill Evans and Eddie Gomez Fantasy
1975 Alone Again Fantasy
1976 Quintessence with Kenny Burrell and Harold Land Fantasy
1976 Together Again with Tony Bennett Improv
1976 The Paris Concert Live Fantasy
1977 Crosscurrents with Lee Konitz and Warne Marsh Fantasy
1978 I Will Say Goodbye Grammy Award for Best Jazz Instrumental Solo Fantasy
1977 You Must Believe in Spring Warner Bros.
1978 Getting Sentimental Live – Trio with Michael Moore & Philly Joe Jones Milestone
1978 New Conversations Solo Warner Bros.
1979 Affinity with Toots Thielemans Warner Bros.
1979 Marian McPartland’s Piano Jazz Radio Broadcast Fantasy
1979 We Will Meet Again Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Group award Warner Bros.
1979 Homecoming Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Milestone
1979 The Paris Concert: Edition One Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Elektra Musician
1979 The Paris Concert: Edition Two Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Elektra Musician
1980 Letter to Evan Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Dreyfus
1980 Turn Out the Stars: The Final Village Vanguard Recordings Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Dreyfus
1980 The Last Waltz: The Final Recordings Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Milestone
1980 Consecration: The Final Recordings Part 2 Live – Trio with Marc Johnson & Joe LaBarbera Milestone
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